## Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate

- We know the density which is also known as unit weight, its mass per unit volume of area of that material. The density is denoted by the symbol by RHO (ρ), it defines the degree of compactness of material. Density refers that which material density is high then that material is more denser.
- Density of any materials is refers by kg/m
^{3 }or lb/ft^{3}. - The density is stated as following,

**ρ = m/v**

Where,

- ρ= density
- m= mass
- v= volume

**Density of Cement**:

Cement is a binding particle which is used in construction work to bind the materials, hardens and gains strength quickly.

Cement bind coarse and fine aggregate and create cement mortar and cement concrete. Cement plaster is made of cement and fine aggregate and cement concrete is made of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.

The density of the material is measured by the following unit- kg/m^{3 }or lb/ft^{3}.

OPC cement density is 1440 kg/m^{3}.

**Density of **Sand

The density of sand depends on two different conditions, one is dry condition and other is wet condition. When the sand is in dry condition then the particles are forced to form narrow disposition and the result of this condition cause more volume of the sand.

But when the sand is in wet condition then water is presented in the sand particles and changes the quantity by volume. In wet condition, the volume of the sand density is increased.

In a different state the average density of sand are:

- Loose sand density:
**1442 kg/m**^{3}. - Dry sand density:
**1602 kg/m**^{3}. - Packed sand density:
**1682 kg/m**^{3}. - Packed sand density:
**2082 kg/m**^{3}.

### Density of Aggregate

Aggregates are that type of substance which are binded by cement paste to create cement concrete. In the concrete aggregates cover most of the volume in concrete and also takes the strength of the concrete.

On the basis of their size the aggregates are categorized by two parts, those are-

**Fine Aggregate.****Coarse Aggregate.**

The aggregates which have less than 4.75mm size are considered as fine aggregate. In the concrete; sand and crushed stone dust are mixed in the fine aggregate.

Sand is collected from rivers, seas, lakes, etc. That substance which is retained on IS sieve 4.75mm is referred to as coarse aggregate.

The construction type depends on the size of aggregate such as 20cm is used as mass concrete-like dams, 63 mm is used for plain cement concrete, 20 mm aggregates are used in reinforced concrete work.

#### Bulk Density of Aggregate

- Bulk density is the weight of aggregate needed to fill a unit volume of an container. Bulk density also indicates the grade and shape of aggregate.
- Bulk Density= Weight of aggregate/ Container of unit volume, bulk density is equal to the unit volume.
- The approximately of bulk density of aggregate is varies between
**1750 kg/m**^{3 }or 75 to 110 lb/ft^{3}

### Relative Density of Specific Gravity of Aggregate

Aggregates are generally contains both permeable and impermeable pores, but excluding the pores we say that it is the specific gravity of the aggregates.

**Absolute specific gravity:** ( oven-dried aggregate weight at 100°C for 24 hours)/ ( waters volume equal to that of aggregate’s solids without considering pore)

Most of the aggregate with **kg/m ^{3}**.

Relative density between 2.4-2.9 which means 2400-2900 **kg/m ^{3 }**(150-181

**lb/ft**)

^{3}The relative density of an aggregate is based on the dry or saturates surface dry. Apparent specific gravity= (oven-dried aggregate weight at 100°C for 24 hours)/ ( waters volume equal to that of aggregate’s solids without considering pore)

Gross apparent specific gravity= Dried aggregate weight in saturated dry condition)/ ( water’s weight volume equal to that of aggregate, including all pores)

## Density of Building Materials as Per Is 875 Part-I

Construction Materials |
Density in Kg/m^{3 } |
Density in Kn/m^{3} |

Bitumen | 1040 | 10.4 |

Brick Dust | 1010 | 10.1 |

Cement mortar | 2080 | 20.8 |

Chalk | 2100 | 21 |

Clay Soil | 1900 | 19 |

Earth (Dry) | 1410-1840 | 14.1-18.4 |

Earth(Moist) | 1600-2000 | 16-20 |

Fire Bricks | 2400 | 24 |

Glass | 2500 | 25 |

Granite Stone | 2400-2690 | 24-26.9 |

Gypsum Powder | 1410-1760 | 14.1-17.6 |

Ice | 920 | 9.2 |

Lime Mortar | 1600-1840 | 16-18 |

Ordinary Cement | 1440 | 14.4 |

PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) | 1400 | 24 |

Pitch | 1010 | 10.1 |

Prestressed Cement Concrete | 2400 | 24 |

Rapid Hardening Cement | 1280 | 12.8 |

RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) | 2500 | 25 |

RCC Blocks | 2100 | 21 |

Red Bricks | 1920 | 19.2 |

Road Tar | 1010 | 10.1 |

Rubber | 1300 | 13 |

Sal Wood | 865 | 8.65 |

Saline Water | 1025 | 10.25 |

Sand (Dry) | 1540-1600 | 15.4-16 |

Sand (Wet) | 1760-2000 | 17.6-20 |

Sisso Wood | 785 | 7.85 |

Steel (Mild) | 7850 | 78.5 |

Stone Ballast | 1720 | 17.2 |

Stonechips | 1600-1920 | 16-19.2 |

Stainless Steel | 7480 | 74.8 |

Teak Wood | 640 | 6.4 |

Water | 1000 | 10 |

Gypsum Mortar | 1200 | 12 |

## FAQ: The Density of Cement, Sand, and Aggregate in Construction Materials

**What is density and how is it measured?**

Density, also known as unit weight, is the mass per unit volume of a material. It is denoted by the symbol ρ (rho) and defines the degree of compactness of a material. Density is measured in kg/m³ or lb/ft³ and is calculated using the formula: $ρ=vm $ where $ρ$ is density, $m$ is mass, and $v$ is volume.

**What is the density of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)?**

The density of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is approximately 1440 kg/m³.

**How does the condition of sand affect its density?**

The density of sand depends on its condition:

- Loose sand density: 1442 kg/m³
- Dry sand density: 1602 kg/m³
- Packed sand density: 1682 kg/m³
- Wet sand density: 2082 kg/m³

**What are aggregates and how are they categorized?**

Aggregates are materials bound by cement paste to form concrete. They are categorized based on size:

- Fine Aggregate: Particles smaller than 4.75 mm, including sand and crushed stone dust.
- Coarse Aggregate: Particles larger than 4.75 mm, often used in different sizes for various construction types.

**What is the bulk density of aggregate?**

Bulk density is the weight of aggregate needed to fill a unit volume container, indicating the grade and shape of the aggregate. It varies between 1750 kg/m³ and 110 lb/ft³.

**What is the relative density or specific gravity of aggregate?**

Relative density or specific gravity of aggregate includes both permeable and impermeable pores. Absolute specific gravity is calculated as: $Absolute specific gravity=water volume equal to that of aggregate’s solids without considering poreoven-dried aggregate weight at 100°C for 24 hours $ The relative density typically ranges between 2.4-2.9 (2400-2900 kg/m³ or 150-181 lb/ft³).

**What are the typical densities of various building materials as per IS 875 Part-I?**

Some typical densities include:

- Bitumen: 1040 kg/m³
- Cement Mortar: 2080 kg/m³
- Fire Bricks: 2400 kg/m³
- Glass: 2500 kg/m³
- Granite Stone: 2400-2690 kg/m³
- Sand (Dry): 1540-1600 kg/m³
- Steel (Mild): 7850 kg/m³
- Water: 1000 kg/m³

**How does moisture content affect the density of earth?**

The density of earth varies based on moisture content:

- Dry Earth: 1410-1840 kg/m³
- Moist Earth: 1600-2000 kg/m³

**What is the density of reinforced cement concrete (RCC)?**

The density of reinforced cement concrete (RCC) is approximately 2500 kg/m³.

**How are different sizes of aggregates used in construction?**

The size of aggregates used depends on the type of construction:

- 20 cm aggregates are used in mass concrete like dams.
- 63 mm aggregates are used for plain cement concrete.
- 20 mm aggregates are used in reinforced concrete work.